Medal of Honor 
during Indian Wars

The Medal of Honor, this nation's highest honor for valor, was awarded to four Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts.  Buffalo Soldier Regimental returns, show that after twelve engagements and twenty expeditions, not one of their men was killed or seriously wounded in their seventeen-year history from 1868-1885.  These young men of pure African or mixed black and Seminole ancestry, dressed, acted and possessed trailing, hunting and fighting skills like those of the plains Indians. Their number varied between thirty to fifty scouts. They were probably the best desert fighters and trackers the in the history of the United States Army.

The Florida Seminole Nation is one of the Five Civilized Nations. It held slaves, who could do as they pleased, as long as they gave goods to the tribe.  This also brought protection from slavers and the military. They also accepted runaway slaves into their tribe. The Seminole Nation fought slavers, Indians and the U.S. government to keep their ancestral lands and farms, which delayed the annexation of Florida. The United States government invited their leaders Chief Coacoochee (Wild Cat) and Chief Osceola, the great medicine man, to take part in peace talks under a flag of truce.  When the Seminole leaders arrived at the site of the negotiations they were promptly arrested.  The Seminole Nation was marched to Indian Territory on what is now known as the "Trail of Tears", where hundreds of men, women and children were marched to their deaths.


Chief Osceola, Courtesy National Archives

Because of attacks from slavers and Creek Indians, the majority of the Seminoles and Seminole Negroes moved into Mexico.  For twenty years as colonists, they served in the Mexican Army fighting Comanche and Apache Indians raiders, in addition to Texans.  At the death of Chief Wild Cat, the Seminoles left Mexico for United States. Under the leadership of their black Seminole Chief, John Horse, the Seminole Negroes stayed in Mexico away from slavery. Other Seminole, Creek and Cherokee Negroes joined them.

The United States army had great difficulty in trying to control the ongoing hostile activities of the Comanche, Apache, and other plains Indians. The U.S. government invited the Seminole Negroes to return to the United States to serve as scouts. The Seminole Negroe's understanding of this Treaty was that the government would grant them land, pay their transportation costs to the U.S., pay them for their services and provide provisions for their families.

Reny Grayson, 
Indian Scout 
1910, Courtesy 
New York 
Public Library

It took two years to find a commanding officer who could handle the Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts and gain their respect. The officer was Lieutenant John L. Bullis, a Quaker who commanded United States Colored Troops in the Civil War. Bullis' fighting skills and religious background probably helped lead to a closeness with the scouts that resulted in Bullis receiving invitations to perform marriages and baptisms in their Indian villages.

On the trail they were the best shots from the saddle, able to find water and food others missed, could pickup trails up to three weeks old and stay on a trail for months at a time. Unlike the soldiers, they could also live off of half rations indefinitely.  Many of their, culprits, incorrectly, thought  they had escaped from these scouts.


Pompey Factor,
Medal of Honor

Near the end of their service to the government, Chief John Horse of the Seminole Negroes asked that their treaty be honored.  He was told there was no copy of it, no land was available to be given them and that they were not entitled to lands granted to Indians. When the tribe was moved off of the reservation, some of the scouts were arrested and moved   with them.  Due to the unpunished  murders and other intolerable injustices suffered by  the Seminole Negroes, five of the scouts quit the service and moved their families to the Rio Grande.  Private Pompey Factor, who saved Lieutenant Bulli's life, received his Medal of Honor, but not his pension. He was told there was no record of his service.  Service by the Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts was completed in 1914.

The Last of the Seminole-
Negro Indian Scouts, 
1913-1914, Courtesy New
York Public Library

Today, outside Bracketville, Texas, there is a graveyard with a marker giving testament to honors won by the Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts and the dreams lost by the Seminole Indian Nation.

Medal of  Honor Recipients, Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts


Pvt. Adam Paine, September 20, 1874. The Staked Plains, Texas.  Sept. 26-27, 1874. Inducted: Fort Duncan, Texas. Born: Florida. Issued: Oct 13, 1875.  Citation: Rendered invaluable service to Col. R. S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry., during this engagement.

Pvt. Pompey Factor, April 25,1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas.  Issued March 15, 1875.  Citation: With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol

Pvt. Isaac Payne, April 25, 1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas. April 25, 1875.  Born: Mexico. Issued: May 25, 1875. Citation: With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol.

Sgt. John Ward, April 25,1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas.  April 25, 1875. Entered service at. Fort Duncan, Tex. Born: Arkansas. Issued: May 28, 1875. Citation.  With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol.

Personal Links*

Buffalo Soldiers

Civil War

62nd & 65th Regiments U.S. Colored Troops, with History & Soldiers' Names* Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.

Preservation Issues, Black Missourians in the Civil War, Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.

The Battle of Glasgow- Includes 62nd Regiment USCT. Pictures, maps and references. Excellent

"Additional Notes on the Battle of Glasgow on October 15, 1864."
New research and maps; Excellent

Mid-Missouri Round Table- This Civil War historical Web site presents detailed documented accounts of military engagements, with pictures, maps, and references, plus a calendar of association events. Excellent Site.

Palmito Ranch, The Last Battle of the Civil War: A Gentleman's Agreement Broken*

COLUMBIA CEMETERY Columbia, Missouri- The Columbia Cemetary could be the only known cemetary in Missouri in which United States Colored Infantry, Civil War Veterans are buried. You will find 31 graves from the following regiments; 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 13th, 18th, 54th, 56th, 60th, 62nd, 65th, 67th, and the 68th. They are in very poor condition.

Civil War Medicine- Excellent

War of the Rebellion Journal Contents (1880 - 1901)- The War of the Rebellion is a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies published under the direction of the Secretary of War. It includes all official General & Regimental communications.  Helps to know the theater of war, unit, month and year.

The United States Civil War Center-Thousands of links, including Native Americans

Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System

United States Army Military History Institute

The Louisiana Native Guards- Excellent Site

Black Civil War Soldiers of the Trans-Mississippi West

Union Army Regimental Histories

Cindi's List of African- American Sites

American Indians In The Civil War

Veteran Military Websites
Military & Pension Records for Union Civil War Veterans

Civil War Artillery Sites


Constitution of the United States-
Biographies of the signing and nonsigning delegates to the Constitutional Convention, Bill of Rights, and much more. Excellent

THE OVERLAND TRAIL: An Official Millennium Trail. This site is very comprehensive in its analysis of the everyday aspects of living and traving in the West. Excellent

Dive and Discover- Join scientists as they dive to the mid-ocean ridge thousands of meters deep. Excellent

Travel thirty-eight states by motorhome, and experience their wonder and history through interactive experiences. Excellent

50 -
Complete information on each State

Project Gutenberg - Download pre-1923 classic books from the start of this century and previous centuries, from authors like Shakespeare, Poe, Dante. Titles: Sherlock Holmes, Tarzan, Alice's adventures in Wonderland, and thousands of others. Excellent

Library of Congress American Memory Lessons, Grades 4-12

Hperhistory Timeline -
Click on the 3,000-year timeline to access relevant maps, biographies and profiles of people, places and events. Excellent

Blue Web'n- A Library of Blue Ribbon learning sites on the Web. Excellent

The Wild, Wild West- This site provides a multiplicity of "Excellent" links.

EduScapes -A Website for Life-Long Learners.

Websites and Resources For Teachers

Los Angeles County Schools- K-12 Lesson Plans


St.Johns K-12, Fl. SJCSD Black History Websites

Georgia Institute of Technology- K-12; Center for Education Integrating Science, Mathematics, and Computing

Davenport Public

Learning Disabilities

Brothers Judd
A major source for good books, recommended reading, and tons of rated websites!

Educational Resources Information Center ( Ask ERIC) and Other Clearinghouses

POETRY- You'll find everything here.

Federation of American Scientists- Includes video clips and much more. Excellent

NASA- Photo Gallery; Excellent

NASA- Ask the Hubble Space Telescope team a question. Excellent

National Geographic- Excellent

A WWW Vitural
International Aborigious
Excellent site with excellent photographs.

Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators

Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Native American Tribal Colleges & Universities

Hispanic Association of Colleges & Universities

Women's Colleges

Smithsonian Institution


Kids Domain


Yaho0ligans-A Web guide for kids

Reach-it: A very useful site!

The American Veterinary Medical Association:
Animal health, safety, buying, pet loss, careers, kid's corner

Environmental Protection Agency-There is also a link for kids.


Search Engines-28*

Shareware & Freebees




CSUS LIBRARY- Offers a multiplicty of services including, online applications for more than 1,700 undergraduate colleges, as well as graduate programs.

National Achievement Scholarship

The Minority On-Line
Information Service

2001 Colleges, College Scholarships, and Financial Aid page

United Negro College Fund

The American Indian College Fund

The Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowships for New Americans

Hispanic Scholarship Fund


Afrigeneas Home Page

Amistad Research Center

American Historical Text Archive
-This archive, housed at Mississippi State University, is international in scope.

U.S. Colored Troops -
Contains the names of over 230,000 soldiers of the USCT.

New Orleans Public Library

Pennsylvania Department: African-American genealogy

Kentucky Department for Libraries and
Archives -
"Archival Reference Services", accepts certain written requests for genealogy searches. Hundreds of sources


The Constitution of the United States: Full Text

Pro-Handgun Control

Anti-Handgun Control

Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System Name Search-
I found my granfather by leaving out the Unit No. (or Ordinal) info.

National Archives and Records Administration

Genealogy & Soundex Locator

Ordering Pension & Military Records

Selected Civil War Photographs & Searchable Index

Library of Congress

The White House 

American Memory Library

Environmental Organizations
Web Directory-
This site has everything on the topic from restrants to
solar vehicles.

National Weather Service Local & World

The Federal Population Censuses

U. S. Census Bureau

Cathay Williams, Female Buffalo Soldier *
With Cowboy poem, biography, documents, photo, and an analysis of her efforts to gain her disability and pension allowances.

Indian War African-
Americans & Indian Scouts Medal of Honor Recipients *

Sgt. Henry Parker, Ex-slave, Civil War & Buffalo Soldiers:* Personal & military documents.

Lt. Henry O. Flipper; *
First African-American graduate of West Point Military Academy and a Buffalo Soldier officer.

Colonel Charles Young; Third African-American West Point Academy graduate, and a Buffalo Soldier officer. * Revised with military and family photos.

Sancho Mazique; A Buffalo Soldier Remembered. *

The Buffalo Soldiers
at Fort Huachuca: Parts 1 & 2.
Includes Colonel Charles Young.

USS Buffalo Soldier AK-9301*
Naval Vessel

Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts:* Revised with photos & links.

Discovering Archaeology:
The War for the Plains

Indian War Medal of Honor Recipients-All

Civil War Medal of Honor Recipients A-L

Civil War Medal of Honor Recipients M-Z - Includes Dr. Mary E. Walker, only female recipient.

Civil War African-American Medal of Honor Recipients:*
Revised text with photos

Spanish-American War Medal of Honor Recipients

WW1 Medal of Honor Recipients

World War II (A-F)
World War II (G-L)
World War II (M-S)
World War II (T-Z)
Medal of Honor Recipients

WW2 African-American Medal of Honor Recipients*

Hispanic-American Medal of Honor Recipients

Japanese-American Medal of Honor Recipients*

Buffalo Soldiers & Indian Wars: Mini- Lesson Plan

Texas Parks & Wildlife: Community Outreach Project; Texas Buffalo Soldiers History. Excellent

Ninth & Tenth (Horse) Cavalry Association-The Greater Los Angeles Chapter of the Ninth & Tenth (Horse) Cavalry Association; An Official Army Unit Association. Excellent


The Emancipation Proclamation

Cavalry at Camp Lockett- San Diago Historical Society. History and photos of the soldiers and civilians set to defend the U. S. on its west coast. Excellent

Black Nurses in History: A bibliography and guide to Web resources.

Trenches on the Web-A major site on all aspects of " THE GREAT WAR". Explore all of the links. Discover Lt. James Reese Europe, famous leader of the 369th Infantry "Hell Fighters" band. Not a blood & gore site. Excellent

Black Cowboys

366th Infantry Regiment Veterans Association

The Tuskegee Airmen, George Washington Carver, Booker T. Washington. Excellent

African-Americans in Motion Pictures-
History, Movies, Actors, Directors, Festivals, Academy Awards and much more. Excellent Site

Black History Month- Exploring African-American History

A Deeper Shade of History- Look at interesting facts for this particular week in black history.

Prominent Figures In Black History Buried At Arlington National Cemetery.

African-American Newspapers and Other Printed Media- Publications across the United States.

Soul Of America History And Culture

Smithsonian: African- American History And Culture

Academic Info. The American West: New
Western History

Cindi's List of African- American Sites

The Conquest of the West: Excellent Overview

American Veterans Confirmation Service

The American War Library

Black Entertainment


National Council of La Raza

National Latino
Communications Center

LMCO Diversity-
Cultural Focus


Latino Medicine

The Azteca Web Page

Indigenous Peoples of Mexico

W.K. Kellogg Foundation

Society For the Advancement
of Chicano and Native American Science

Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs

College of Liberal Arts Language Center:
Learn Spanish

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute

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Women's Resources

Soviet Women Combat Pilots, WW11
- Excellent

Distinguished Women of Past and Present: Biographies of women writers, educators, scientists, heads of state, politicians, civil rights crusaders, artists, entertainers, and others.

WASP ON THE WEB: Women Airforce Service Pilots; A site dedicated to sharing the history of the Women Airforce Service Pilots of World War II, and shining a light on the inspirational stories of their lives before, during, and after WWII. Excellent

Infants & Children: Center and Disease Control

Adolescents and Teen Safety

American Association of University Women

Women's Sports Foundation

Women's Business Center

National Science Foundation

Women’s Philanthropy Institute

Women's History Resources

Women World Leaders

POETRY You'll find everything here.

Women Warriors in the 20th Century: International In Scope

Military Woman Home Page


Send a free
MARSGRAM message
to and from personnel aboard certain ships and deployed forces

Dept. of Defense: National Women's Month

Federation of American Scientists- Includes video clips and much more. Excellent

The Army Historical Foundation- To preserve the heritage of the American soldier. Excellent

Spy & Espionage Intelligence
Hundreds of sources

Veterans Organizations
and Support Groups

International in scope

Official Web site of the United States Army

Official Web site of the United States Navy

Official Web site of the United States Marines

Official Web site of the United States Air Force

MilMail Members Search

General United States Department of Defense Information

Page 1

101st Regt. United States Colored Infantry* 


The Seminole Nation Indian Territory-

Colonel Allen Allensworth

Five Civilized Nations

Union Pacific Railroad-

Treaty Of Medicine Lodge*



Kiowa tribes

Brevet Major General George Armstrong
Custer, Lieutenant Colonel

General Philip Sheridan

General William T. Sherman

Page 2

Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 *

Chief Satanta

Chief Quanah Parker

Legendary Chiricahua, Chief Cochise

Page 4

Chief Gull

Little Bighorn

Major Reno's Account

Chief Crazy Horse's Monument

Lipan, 6th-8th grades- Excellent

Kickapoo Indians

Richard Henry Pratt- Controversial founder of Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Includes Hampton Insitute, the first non- Christian school accepting Native Americans. Excellent


Native American

Ryder Collection, 362 Color paintings & photos of Native American scenes, and artifacts, with archival data.- Click on all paintings and photos to enlarge. Smithsonian Institution; Excellent

MAPS: Geographical Information Systems- Explores Native American lands, history, artifacts, current places, and much more. Excellent

Twin Territories, Oklahoma-Indian Territory Project.

Legendary Indian Leaders Speak

American Indian Treaties, Law and Issues

Legislative Impact:
This site provides up to the minute information on tribal issues currently in legislation.

The American Indian Page

Native American Resources

American Indians In The Civil War

The United States Civil War Center: Thousands of links, including Native Americans.

Bill's Aboriginal links-Provides a listing of international native sites. Excellent

Early Native Americans Texas Maps


Japanese-Asian Americans

The National Japanese -American Historical Society

Japanese-American Veteran'association, Military & Events

A History of the Japanese-American Internment

Chinese Culture Net

Chinese Language Information Page

Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library

The Center For Southeast

Asian Studies

Asian Art

Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association


Fort Clark, Texas

Fort Concho, Texas

Fort Davis, Texas

Fort Davis, West Texas

Fort Gibson, Oklahoma

Fort Griffin, Texas

Fort Laramie, Wyoming

Fort Larned, Kansas

Fort McKavett, Texas

Fort Scott, Kansas

Fort Stockton, Texas

International Light Horse Cavalry

The 61 Cavalry- The only unmechanised mounted cavalry regiment in the world. The genesis of modern polo.

Strathcona Museum Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Regimental Museum

Nintheenth Century British and Indian Armies- Very large
photographic and genealogical resource for 19th century British and Indian armies, soldiers, and
Anglo- Indians (India) families.

K Troop The New South Wales Lancers- Allies WW1&2





Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

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